I’m going to try on a weekly basis to try out or learn from Isabella Beeton herself so this week I thought I’d start at the beginning with her extension collection of French terms for cookery.
Interestingly there weren’t many we don’t use today but I did particularly enjoy the term, “trousser” because so few of us today prepare our poultry for cooking ourselves, preferring to have our supermarket or butcher do it.
“Vol au vent” and “aspic” (jelly) also made me laugh because in today’s context they are a deeply unfashionable 1970’s foods today.
French Terms for Cookery by Isabella Beeton (The Book of Household Management By Mrs. Isabella Beeton. Volume 1. )
ASPIC.—A savoury jelly, used as an exterior moulding for cold game, poultry, f
ish, &c. This, being of a transparent nature, allows the bird which it covers to be seen through it. This may also be used for decorating or garnishing.
ASSIETTE (plate).—Assiettes are the small entrées and hors-d’oeuvres, the quantity of which does not exceed what a plate will hold. At dessert, fruits, cheese, chestnuts, biscuits, &c., if served upon a plate, are termed assiettes.
ASSIETTE VOLANTE is a dish which a servant hands round to the guests, but is not placed upon the table. Small cheese soufflés and different dishes, which ought to be served very hot, are frequently made assielles volantes.
AU-BLEU.—Fish dressed in such a manner as to have a bluish appearance.
BAIN-MARIE.—An open saucepan or kettle of nearly boiling water, in which a smaller vessel can be set for cooking and warming. This is very useful for keeping articles hot, without altering their quantity or quality. If you keep sauce, broth, or soup by the fireside, the soup reduces and becomes too strong, and the sauce thickens as well as reduces; but this is prevented by using the bain-marie, in which the water should be very hot, but not boiling.
BÉCHAMEL.—French white sauce, now frequently used in English cookery.
BLANCH.—To whiten poultry, vegetables, fruit, &c., by plunging them into boiling water for a short time, and afterwards plunging them into cold water, there to remain until they are cold.
BLANQUETTE.—A sort of fricassee.
BOUILLI.—Beef or other meat boiled; but, generally speaking, boiled beef is understood by the term.
BOUILLIE.—A French dish resembling hasty-pudding.
BOUILLON.—A thin broth or soup.
BRAISE.—To stew meat with fat bacon until it is tender, it having previously been blanched.
BRAISIÈRE.—A saucepan having a lid with ledges, to put fire on the top.
BRIDER.—To pass a packthread through poultry, game, &c., to keep together their members.
CARAMEL (burnt sugar).—This is made with a piece of sugar, of the size of a nut, browned in the bottom of a saucepan; upon which a cupful of stock is gradually poured, stirring all the time a glass of broth, little by little. It may be used with the feather of a quill, to colour meats, such as the upper part of fricandeaux; and to impart colour to sauces. Caramel made with water instead of stock may be used to colour compôtes and other entremets.
CASSEROLE.—A crust of rice, which, after having been moulded into the form of a pie, is baked, and then filled with a fricassee of white meat or a purée of game.
COMPOTE.—A stew, as of fruit or pigeons.
CONSOMMÉ.—Rich stock, or gravy.
CROQUETTE.—Ball of fried rice or potatoes.
CROUTONS.—Sippets of bread.
DAUBIÈRE.—An oval stewpan, in which daubes are cooked; daubes being meat or fowl stewed in sauce.
DÉSOSSER.—To bone, or take out the bones from poultry, game, or fish. This is an operation requiring considerable experience.
ENTRÉES.—Small side or corner dishes, served with the first course.
ENTREMETS.—Small side or corner dishes, served with the second course.
ESCALOPES.—Collops; small, round, thin pieces of tender meat, or of fish, beaten with the handle of a strong knife to make them tender.
FLAMBER.—To singe fowl or game, after they have been picked.
FONCER.—To put in the bottom of a saucepan slices of ham, veal, or thin broad slices of bacon.
GALETTE.—A broad thin cake.
GÂTEAU.—A cake, correctly speaking; but used sometimes to denote a pudding and a kind of tart.
GLACER.—To glaze, or spread upon hot meats, or larded fowl, a thick and rich sauce or gravy, called glaze. This is laid on with a feather or brush, and in confectionary the term means to ice fruits and pastry with sugar, which glistens on hardening.
HORS-D’OEUVRES.—Small dishes, or assiettes volantes of sardines, anchovies, and other relishes of this kind, served to the guests during the first course. (See ASSIETTES VOLANTES.)
LIT.—A bed or layer; articles in thin slices are placed in layers, other articles, or seasoning, being laid between them.
MAIGRE.—Broth, soup, or gravy, made without meat.
MATELOTE.—A rich fish-stew, which is generally composed of carp, eels, trout, or barbel. It is made with wine.
MAYONNAISE.—Cold sauce, or salad dressing.
MENU.—The bill of fare.
MERINGUE.—A kind of icing, made of whites of eggs and sugar, well beaten.
MIROTON.—Larger slices of meat than collops; such as slices of beef for a vinaigrette, or ragout or stew of onions.
MOUILLER.—To add water, broth, or other liquid, during the cooking.
PANER.—To cover over with very fine crumbs of bread, meats, or any other articles to be cooked on the gridiron, in the oven, or frying-pan.
PIQUER.—To lard with strips of fat bacon, poultry, game, meat, &c. This should always be done according to the vein of the meat, so that in carving you slice the bacon across as well as the meat.
POÊLÉE.—Stock used instead of water for boiling turkeys, sweetbreads, fowls, and vegetables, to render them less insipid. This is rather an expensive preparation.
PURÉE.—Vegetables, or meat reduced to a very smooth pulp, which is afterwards mixed with enough liquid to make it of the consistency of very thick soup.
RAGOUT.—Stew or hash.
RISSOLES.—Pastry, made of light puff-paste, and cut into various forms, and fried. They may be filled with fish, meat, or sweets.
ROUX.—Brown and white; French thickening.
SALMI.—Ragout of game previously roasted.
SAUCE PIQUANTE.—A sharp sauce, in which somewhat of a vinegar flavour predominates.
SAUTER.—To dress with sauce in a saucepan, repeatedly moving it about.
TAMIS.—Tammy, a sort of open cloth or sieve through which to strain broth and sauces, so as to rid them of small bones, froth, &c.
TOURTE.—Tart. Fruit pie.
TROUSSER.—To truss a bird; to put together the body and tie the wings and thighs, in order to round it for roasting or boiling, each being tied then with packthread, to keep it in the required form.
VOL-AU-VENT.—A rich crust of very fine puff-paste, which may be filled with various delicate ragouts or fricassees, of fish, flesh, or fowl. Fruit may also be inclosed in a vol-au-vent.